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Remote Fellowship – Foot & Ankle Fundamentals – 11/2/2020

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Patient History

64-year-old man complaining of medial ankle pain for 6 months.



Prominent retrotibial DEEP bifid groove with osseous spurring medially (in which the posterior tibial tendon sits). Extensive reactive stress related osteoedema surrounding prominent retrotibial groove.

No other reactive pattern of marrow edema. No micro- or macro-trabecular fracture or stress fracture. No aggressive osseous abnormality.

Hindfoot valgus is noted. No pes planus in the dorsiflexed position. 

No os navicularis, os peroneus, or os trigonum.


Tibiotalar joint/talar dome: Incidental moderate-sized non-shouldered osteochondral lesion at the medial aspect of the talar dome, measuring 10 mm AP and 4 mm transverse diameter. Associated overlying full-thickness chondral defect. Mild tibiotalar capsulitis associated with a trace effusion.

Ankle mortise/syndesmosis: The ankle mortise is in anatomic alignment. No syndesmotic widening.

Chopart joint: Unremarkable.

Midfoot/hindfoot: No fracture or injury of the anterior calcaneal process. No prominent midfoot or hindfoot arthrosis.

Lisfranc joint: Unremarkable.


High ankle: Intact.

Low ankle: Intact.

Subtalar/Chopart: Intact. In particular, the spring ligaments and short and long plantar ligaments are intact and unremarkable in appearance.


Diffuse posterior tibial tendon hypertrophic tendinosis, with associated tenosynovial thickening and edema (tenosynovitis).

Extensive complex hypertrophic supra-, juxta- and inframalleolar tear of the posterior tibial tendon. The tear extends from the supramalleolar portion (at least 5.5 cm above the medial malleolus), to just short of the distal insertion and separation into its individual attachments (measuring a total length of approximately 8 cm). Tear morphology is predominantly longitudinal interstitial, with a short segment split component in the juxtamalleolar region.

Mild reactive synovial thickening of the flexor digitorum longus. Flexor hallucis longus tendon unremarkable.

Extensor digitorum and peroneus tertius tenosynovitis with moderate-sized tenosynovial sheath effusions. Unremarkable tibialis anterior tendon.

Mild juxtamalleolar peroneus longus and brevis tenosynovitis.

Achilles tendon intact and unremarkable in appearance.

Incidental note is made of small amount of dependently positioned fluid at the knot of Henry, with a prominent intertendinous slip.


Sinus tarsi: Mild diffuse capsulitis. Stem ligament capsulosynovial bursal cyst. Intact cervical and intraosseous ligaments.

Muscles: No traumatic muscle injury. No volumetric muscle atrophy.

Soft tissue: Diffuse soft tissue swelling/edema surrounding the posterior tibial tendon.

Plantar fascia: Diffuse mild thickening of the central cord of the plantar fascia proximally, consistent with chronic plantar fasciitis. No evidence for active fasciitis. No plantar fascial tear.

Neurovascular complex/tarsal tunnel: Unremarkable. No evidence of entrapment neuropathy.

Intra-articular/loose bodies: None.


  1. Dominant hypertrophic posterior tibial tendinosis/tenosynovitis with 8 cm supra-, juxta- and inframalleolar posterior tibial tendon tear.
  2. Prominent bifid retrotibial groove with reactive/stress related osteoedema (likely contributing to the chronic posterior tibial tendinopathy).
  3. Incidental extensor digitorum and peroneus tertius tenosynovitis with associated moderate-sized tenosynovial effusions.
  4. Incidental moderate-sized non-shouldered talar dome osteochondral lesion.